Table 4

 Direct and overall contributions (given as percentages) to variance in indicators of bone health by sex at age 49–51 years from circumstances and experiences at each stage in the lifecourse

MenWomen
Total hip BMDLumbar spine BMDBone areaFemoral neck shaft angleTotal hip BMDLumbar spine BMDBone areaFemoral neck shaft angle
*Total R2 refers to the overall amount of variation in each outcome variable explained by all the explanatory variables included in this investigation. The overall contribution of early life variables includes indirect effects mediated through adult socioeconomic position and lifestyle and adult body size. The overall contribution of adulthood includes indirect effects mediated through adult body size. Adult size adjustments: weight for BMD; weight and height for bone area; no adjustments for femoral neck shaft angle.
Source
Fetal life (direct)6.95.27.07.70.10.72.64.4
Infancy and childhood (direct)2.95.05.67.31.61.71.92.9
Total early life (overall)16.718.048.58.97.04.631.55.9
Total early life, excluding indirect effects through adult size6.79.710.8 3.02.23.7
Adulthood (direct)10.68.34.65.63.45.93.07.4
Adulthood overall, including indirect effects through adult size13.99.82.85.66.15.83.97.4
Adult size (direct)7.75.311.624.110.012.7
*Total R2 38.3 33.1 63.0 14.7 37.1 20.4 48.1 13.4