Table 1

 Facilitators and barriers to use of research by policy makers, identified in a systematic review of 24 interview studies (tabulation of data provided by Innvaer et al, 20025)

Facilitators Number of studies
Personal contact between scientists and policy makers13
Timeliness and relevance of the research13
Research that includes a summary with clear recommendations11
Research that confirms current policy or endorses self interest6
Good quality research6
Community pressure or client demand for research4
Inclusion of effectiveness data3
Total studies24
Barriers Number of studies
Absence of personal contact between scientists and policy makers11
Lack of timeliness and relevance of research9
Mutual mistrust between scientists and policy makers8
Power and budget struggles7
Poor quality of research6
Political instability or high turnover of policy making staff5
Total studies 24