Table 1

 Relations of background variables with measures of worktime control

Number (%)Control over daily working hours*Control over days off†
mean (SD)p value‡mean (SD)p value‡
*Control over the length of a workday and the starting and ending times of a workday, range 1–5. †Control over the taking and timing of vacations and other paid and unpaid leave, range 1–5. ‡Analyses of variance.
GenderMen4012 (25)2.41 (1.3)<0.0013.19 (1.1)0.354
Women12127 (75)2.27 (1.1)3.17 (1.0)
Age group18–394967 (31)2.30 (1.1)0.0063.12 (1.0)<0.001
40–495650 (35)2.34 (1.2)3.28 (1.0)
50–645522 (34)2.27 (1.2)3.13 (1.1)
Marital statusMarried or cohabiting12298 (77)2.31 (1.2)0.3733.18 (1.0)0.791
Single, separated, widowed3689 (23)2.29 (1.2)3.18 (1.0)
Family typeNo children7378 (46)2.31 (1.2)0.0023.17 (1.0)<0.001
Child(ren) 0–6 years2149 (13)2.22 (1.2)3.12 (1.0)
Child(ren) 7–18 years4789 (30)2.34 (1.2)3.24 (1.0)
Children 0–18 years1682 (11)2.29 (1.1)3.16 (1.0)
Level ofUniversity4953 (32)2.57 (1.2)<0.0012.82 (1.1)<0.001
educationCollege5800 (37)2.46 (1.2)3.44 (0.9)
Vocational2964 (19)1.88 (1.0)3.27 (0.9)
None1879 (12)1.88 (1.0)3.17 (1.0)
OccupationalUpper white collar6577 (42)2.54 (1.2)<0.0012.92 (1.1)<0.001
statusLower white collar6797 (43)2.27 (1.2)3.46 (0.9)
Manual worker2468 (16)1.76 (1.0)3.11 (1.0)
PermanentYes13164 (82)2.29 (1.2)<0.0013.24 (1.0)<0.001
employmentNo2863 (18)2.38 (1.2)2.92 (1.1)
Schedule typeMon–Fri daytime hours only12749 (80)2.39 (1.2)<0.0013.19 (1.1)0.005
Also evening/weekend shifts1937 (12)2.15 (1.1)3.19 (1.0)
Also night shifts1195 (8)1.69 (1.0)3.09 (1.0)
SmokingNo12990 (83)2.31 (1.2)0.3133.16 (1.0)<0.001
Yes2696 (17)2.28 (1.2)3.25 (1.0)
Consumption ofLow, ⩽200 g/week12564 (88)2.31 (1.2)<0.0013.18 (1.0)0.079
alcoholHigh, >200 g/week1696 (12)2.42 (1.3)3.23 (1.1)
OverweightNo, BMI⩽2712030 (76)2.30 (1.2)0.3753.16 (1.0)<0.001
Yes, BMI>273799 (24)2.32 (1.2)3.24 (1.0)
SedentaryNo, ⩾30 min fast walking/week13761 (86)2.31 (1.2)0.9063.18 (1.0)0.138
lifestyleYes, <30 min2211 (14)2.30 (1.3)3.15 (1.1)
Job control4 high4538 (28)2.67 (1.2)<0.0013.28 (1.1)<0.001
33797 (24)2.38 (1.2)3.20 (1.0)
24173 (26)2.17 (1.1)3.16 (1.0)
1 low3529 (22)1.91 (1.0)3.04 (1.0)
Job demands1 low3911 (24)2.29 (1.2)0.4273.37 (1.0)<0.001
24318 (27)2.29 (1.2)3.21 (1.0)
34182 (26)2.32 (1.2)3.10 (1.0)
4 high3617 (23)2.33 (1.2)3.04 (1.1)
Job strainlow strain4113 (26)2.47 (1.2)<0.0013.31 (1.1)<0.001
situationsactive job4210 (26)2.60 (1.2)3.18 (1.1)
passive job4107 (26)2.11 (1.1)3.26 (0.9)
high strain3582 (22)1.99 (1.1)2.94 (1.0)
Effort-reward1 low3046 (19)2.46 (1.2)<0.0013.29 (1.0)<0.001
imbalance24783 (30)2.41 (1.2)3.26 (1.0)
34888 (31)2.25 (1.2)3.15 (1.0)
4 high3283 (21)2.10 (1.2)3.00 (1.1)