Table 5

 Examples of the barriers and facilitators derived from studies of young people’s views (n = 35)

Spheres of influenceMental healthPhysical activityHealthy eating
Self Barriers Barriers Barriers
Feeling powerlessLack of confidence in skillsTaste preferences for ‘fast foods’
Worries about personal appearancePreference for other activitiesConcern over appearance can lead to dieting
Facilitators Facilitators Facilitators
Indulging in pleasurable activitiesOpportunity to show off skills“Will power”
Being creativeHelp with weight loss
Family and friends Barriers Barriers Barriers
Being excluded by peers/ bullyingParental constraint on walking to schoolSnacks and fast food eaten within social spaces outside the home
Concern that worries will not be underplayed by adultsFear of negative evaluation by peers
Facilitators Facilitators Facilitators
Talking to friends for stress; adults for unfamiliar or serious problemsSocial aspects of taking part Combining sports and leisure facilities to increase opportunities for socialisingHealthy food associated with the home and adulthood.
Being listened to and respected
The school Barriers Barriers Barriers
Heavy workload and exams eating into free timeNegative experiences of PE at school (for example, attitudes of teachers)Lack of healthy choices in school canteen
Boredom and monotony of schoolLack of facilities at school
Facilitators Facilitators Facilitators
Achieving in schoolConsultation in choice of activities at schoolProvision of information about the nutritional content of school meals
The end of the school day
Practical and material resources Barriers Barriers Barriers
Worry about choosing and finding a jobLack of money and time“Fast food” is cheap and easy to access
Having nothing to doStructured physical activity associated with childhood not adulthood“Healthy food” is expensive and difficult to access
Facilitators Facilitators Facilitators
Money and financial securityCreate more cycle lanesProvide healthier snacks in vending machines
Physical activityIncreasing access to clubs for dancingReduce cost of healthier snacks