Table 4

Trends in avoidable mortality: mean decrease and variation between countries according to the model

Mortality/100000 (0–64 years of age) in 1989 (according to the model)Decline in 10 years; mortality/100000 (0–64 years of age)Percentage decline/ year (0–64 years of age) 1989–1997Variation between countries (SD) in decline/10 year§Decline dependent on starting level (1989) (p value)Countries showing a more than average decline (p<0.003)‡Countries showing a less than average decline (p<0.003)‡
NS, not significant; BS, borderline significant (0.05<p<0.1); *correlation positive instead of negative; countries in bold type, countries for which more or less than average declines remained after adjustment for starting level (significantly deviating trends); †in France no more than the average decline of mortality attributable to pneumonia/influenza was found before adjustment of the starting level; ‡equal to a Bonferroni adjusted p value<0.05; §adding variation between countries in decline to the model statistically significantly improved the fit of the model
Tuberculosis0.680.406.30.300.16Austria, SpainNetherlands, Sweden
Appendicitis0.070.03 (BS) RepublicBelgium
Lung cancer19., United KingdomPortugal, Spain
Bladder cancer1.480.382.60.180.32
Liver cancer1.*United KingdomFrance
Testis cancer0. Republic, Denmark, Germany
Liver cirrhosis10. Italy, Spain United Kingdom
Perinatal12. Republic Portugal United Kingdom
Motor vehicle accidents14., Portugal, SpainCzech Republic
Skin cancer1.540.18 (NS)0.90.370.06 Ireland Greece
Breast cancer10.01.321.30.980.03United Kingdom France
Cervix cancer1.330.352.40.380.13United KingdomPortugal, Spain
Hodgkin’s disease0.600.
CVA/hypertension16. Republic, PortugalNetherlands, Sweden
Asthma/bronchitis/emphysema4. Republic, DenmarkFrance, Greece, Spain
Cholelithiasis/cholecystitis0.200.09 (BS) Republic, Germany
Pneumonia/influenza2.770.02 (NS)1.10.970.9Austria, France†United Kingdom
Leukaemia2.340.16 (NS)0.60.300.05Czech RepublicSpain
Chronic rheumatic heart disease0.950.627.40.550.007Czech Republic, SpainBelgium, Greece, Luxembourg
All avoidable mortality101., Netherlands, Sweden
Other mortality171.930.51.517.10.03 Finland Greece, Portugal