Table 2

 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for severity and comorbidity by socio-economic status; separately for different chronic disease groups, adjusted for age, sex, and marital status*

Education†Severe disease‡Severe comorbidity§Occupation†Severe disease‡Severe comorbidity§Income†Severe disease†Severe comorbidity§
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Significant odds ratios at p<0.05 are in bold. *All p values of the Hosmer and Lemeshow for goodness of fit of logistic regression are >0.05, indicating that the model’s estimates fit the data at an acceptable level. All analyses were carried out with the same number of respondents in each group: asthma/COPD 465, heart disease 788, diabetes mellitus 137, and low back pain 707. †See notes in table 1 for education, occupation, and income. ‡Severe disease, 1: most severe category and 0: less severe categories. §Severe comorbidity, 1: any severe comorbid condition and 0: no severe comorbid condition.
Asthma/COPDAsthma/COPDAsthma/COPD
    High1.001.0011.001.00High1.001.00
    Medium1.450.78 to 2.691.060.58 to 1.942 1.72 1.00 to 2.961.160.67 to 2.00medium1.350.81 to 2.241.050.63 to 1.76
    Low 1.92 1.04 to 3.55 1.94 1.05 to 3.5732.850.91 to 8.901.490.46 to 4.87Low 1.78 1.07 to 2.99 1.84 1.07 to 3.19
4 2.79 1.65 to 4.73 2.37 1.35 to 4.15
Heart diseaseHeart diseaseHeart disease
    High1.001.0011.001.00High1.001.00
    Medium1.690.71 to 4.021.130.69 to 1.8321.510.82 to 2.780.980.66 to 1.46medium1.300.73 to 2.33 1.62 1.10 to 2.39
    Low2.000.87 to 4.60 1.74 1.09 to 2.7831.610.50 to 5.181.610.72 to 3.59Low1.490.84 to 2.65 1.86 1.26 to 2.75
4 1.86 1.06 to 3.27 1.85 1.27 to 2.70
DiabetesDiabetesDiabetes
    High1.001.0011.001.00High1.001.00
    Medium1.860.42 to 8.230.790.21 to 2.9821.220.47 to 3.190.990.38 to 2.57medium2.290.77 to 6.790.760.27 to 2.18
    Low2.630.61 to 11.261.470.41 to 5.3535.980.59 to 60.561.310.19 to 9.29Low 3.94 1.30 to 11.921.220.42 to 3.54
40.990.37 to 2.650.810.31 to 2.13
Low back painLow back painLow back pain
    High1.001.0011.001.00High1.001.00
    Medium1.070.61 to 1.871.110.67 to 1.8221.060.66 to 1.681.150.75 to 1.77medium1.160.75 to 1.821.110.74 to 1.67
    Low1.100.64 to 1.88 1.80 1.11 to 2.9231.860.72 to 4.770.810.33 to 2.01Low1.360.86 to 2.14 1.71 1.11 to 2.63
41.120.72 to 1.731.260.85 to 1.89