Table 5

Effects on admissions and consultations prevented or delayed by reducing PM10 in Westminster from 1996–1998 roadside levels to UK standards

Emergency hospital admissionsAgeSourceReductions to achieve PM10 annual mean objectiveReductions to achieve 24 h-PM10 target for 31.12.2004Reductions to achieve 24 h-PM10 target for 31.12.2009Effect of reducing pollution to 0μg/m3
40 μg/m3[gravimetric]20 μg/m3[gravimetric]50 μg/m3[gravimetric] with 35 permitted exceedences50 μg/m3[gravimetric] with 7 permitted exceedencesNo of events prevented or delayed paEvents delayed as % of total events in a year
Model 1dModel 2dModel 3bModel 4b
*Figures for accident and emergency department attendances are given as a percentage of the baseline attendance rate. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LRTI, lower respiratory tract infection; IHD, ischaemic heart disease.
RespiratoryAllLondon4.3205.08.0362.8
COMEAP4.3205.08.0362.8
Asthma0–14London0.21.00.20.40.82.1
APHEA-20.42.00.50.83.64.2
APHEA-2(+NO2)(+NO2NNO2NO2)0.00.20.00.10.30.3
15–64London0.52.50.61.04.54.9
APHEA-20.42.00.50.83.53.8
APHEA-2(+ NO2)0.20.70.20.31.31.4
COPD+ asthma⩾65London0.31.40.30.52.51.0
APHEA-21.04.61.10.88.33.5
APHEA-2 (+NO2)0.83.70.91.56.62.8
LRTI⩾65London1.46.61.62.6124.6
Circulatory0–64London2.1102.54.0183.8
⩾652.09.72.43.87.41.7
AllAPHEA-23.0143.55.6261.7
IHD0–64London1.15.21.32.09.24.4
⩾65London1.04.91.21.88.82.8
APHEA-21.04.91.21.88.82.8
A&E attendance*
Asthma0–14London(+NO2)0.62.90.71.2N/A5.2
London(cumulative)1.25.81.42.3N/A10.5
15–641.04.71.11.8N/A8.4