Table 2

Strength of evidence for causal associations for particulates on health outcomes*

Strong evidenceModerate evidenceStrong evidenceModerate evidence
*With example of key papers or reports.
All non-traumatic deaths—acute effects44All respiratory disease.37 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease plus asthma in people aged ⩾65.37 All non-traumatic deaths—effects of long term exposure.1251Emergency hospital admissions for all circulatory36 and all respiratory diseases36 and ischaemic heart disease36 at all ages. Emergency hospital admissions in people aged ⩾65 for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease plus asthma36 and for pneumonia.36 Asthma admissions in children and younger adults.36 Accident and emergency attendances for asthma in children and younger adults35