Table 3

Multilevel logistic models of tract level socioeconomic variables and individual level Medi-Cal: examining the impact of cigarettes smoked per day, UCSF Cohort 1980–1990

Model without smoking or interactionsModel with interactionsModel with smoking and interactions
Variable*Parameter estimate‡p ValueParameter estimate‡p ValueParameter estimate‡p Value
African American women, n=354
    Cigarettes per day0.05770.0012
    Medi-Cal insurance0.49040.07262.94320.00062.82040.0011
    Median income−0.01770.1727−0.02330.0713−0.01710.2243
    Median income20.00200.00120.00230.00020.00200.0014
    Proportion unemployed18.71450.000244.39260.000143.12570.0001
    Proportion unemployed2−69.9021<0.00005−138.625 20.0002−129.473 50.0003
    Change in African American8.11610.00208.26890.00398.70250.0035
    Change in African American234.89940.001131.95620.006332.33870.0093
    Medi-Cal × p unemployed−39.92000.0049−38.40630.0070
    Medi-Cal × p unemployed2105.76760.019797.45790.0286
Model without cigarette smokingModel with cigarette smoking
Variable†Parameter estimate ‡p ValueParameter estimate‡p Value
*Median income, median income in the census tract in 1990, centred and divided by 1000. Proportion unemployed, proportion of unemployed men >18 years old in the census tract in 1990. Change in African American, change in the proportion of African American residents in the census tract between 1980–1990. Medi-Cal × p unemployed, interaction term between the proportion of unemployed men in 1990 and Medi-Cal insurance coverage.
†Change in unemployed, change in the proportion of unemployed men >18 years old in the census tract in between 1980–1990.
‡Parameter estimates are interpreted as in a logistic model with squared term, for example, OR=e^(−3.5530 × change in unemployed+78.2600 × change in unemployed2) for the change in proportion of unemployed men among white women.
White women, n=1142
    Cigarettes per day0.01690.1525
    Medi-Cal insurance0.38330.03680.33680.0638
    Change in unemployed−3.32480.1212−3.55300.0917
    Change in unemployed276.9932<0.0000578.2600<0.00005