Table 4

Multivariate analysis logistic regression of personal barriers and social support variables on meeting of US recommendations for physical activity among urban, suburban, and rural adults with higher and lower income levels*

UrbanSuburbanRural
LowerHigherLowerHigherLowerHigher
Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)
*Adjusted for age, race, education, and gender. †Reference is reporting no personal barriers.
Personal barriers†
    Others discourage1.06 (0.43 to 2.61)1.22 (0.46 to 3.25)– –0.22 (0.02 to 3.26)1.46 (0.39 to 5.50)0.83 (0.11 to 6.31)
    Self conscious about looks1.36 (0.72 to 2.59)1.24 (0.66 to 2.32)2.42 (0.37 to 15.78)0.58 (0.20 to 1.66)1.35 (0.58 to 3.14)0.39 (0.15 to 1.02)
    Afraid of injury0.58 (0.29 to 1.17)0.92 (0.41 to 2.09)0.87 (0.14 to 5.52)1.28 (0.20 to 8.33)0.85 (0.31 to 2.38)0.24 (0.05 to 1.21)
    Don’t have time0.71 (0.40 to 1.26)0.42 (0.27 to 0.66)0.89 (0.28 to 2.80)0.54 (0.23 to 1.25)1.89 (0.89 to 4.03)0.47 (0.24 to 0.91)
    Too tired1.19 (0.67 to 2.12)0.34 (0.21 to 0.56)0.73 (0.21 to 2.56)0.65 (0.26 to 1.62)0.41 (0.16 to 1.07)0.38 (0.19 to 0.77)
    No safe place0.75 (0.35 to 1.59)0.48 (0.21 to 1.10)0.60 (0.09 to 4.03)0.53 (0.10 to 2.93)0.87 (0.31 to 2.54)1.53 (0.49 to 4.78)
    No child care0.67 (0.28 to 1.60)1.72 (0.64 to 4.58)1.08 (0.13 to 8.85)0.82 (0.04 to 16.27)1.03 (0.26 to 4.11)1.45 (0.25 to 8.40)
    Bad weather1.09 (0.46 to 2.59)0.86 (0.43 to 1.71)0.57 (0.11 to 2.93)0.18 (0.03 to 1.03)1.69 (0.56 to 5.13)0.93 (0.31 to 2.79)
    Not in good health0.70 (0.34 to 1.45)0.47 (0.21 to 1.06)0.53 (0.13 to 2.08)0.92 (0.17 to 4.87)0.54 (0.24 to 1.22)0.28 (0.10 to 0.85)
    No energy0.79 (0.40 to 1.57)0.29 (0.14 to 0.58)0.64 (0.18 to 2.25)0.72 (0.23 to 2.20)0.66 (0.26 to 1.71)0.20 (0.07 to 0.54)
    Get exercise at work1.44 (0.84 to 2.47)1.00 (0.63 to 1.58)2.37 (0.81 to 6.93)2.05 (0.79 to 5.32)1.38 (0.61 to 3.11)1.69 (0.89 to 3.22)
    No motivation1.42 (0.73 to 2.75)0.29 (0.17 to 0.51)0.64 (0.20 to 2.10)0.62 (0.25 to 1.54)0.72 (0.28 to 1.83)0.45 (0.20 to 1.00)
    Do not like to exercise1.06 (0.53 to 2.13)0.38 (0.22 to 0.67)0.92 (0.22 to 3.91)0.87 (0.34 to 2.22)1.04 (0.35 to 3.14)0.30 (0.12 to 0.74)
Sum of barriers
    0 barriers (ref)1.00 –1.001.001.001.001.00
    1 barriers0.62 (0.34 to 1.14)0.66 (0.40 to 1.10)0.40 (0.11 to 1.47)1.48 (0.52 to 4.21)1.30 (0.59 to 2.89)0.52 (0.24 to 1.1)
    2 barriers0.72 (0.34 to 1.51)0.30 (0.17 to 0.55)4.13 (0.87 to 19.48)1.04 (0.30 to 3.66)1.20 (0.49 to 2.94)0.35 (0.14 to 0.8)
    3 barriers0.46 (0.22 to 0.99)0.34 (0.16 to 0.72)1.38 (0.25 to 7.69)1.68 (0.24 to 12.03)1.37 (0.51 to 3.70)0.31 (0.11 to 0.8)
    4 barriers0.42 (0.13 to 1.37)0.29 (0.13 to 0.65)0.47 (0.08 to 2.76)0.42 (0.11 to 1.66)0.34 (0.07 to 1.77)0.51 (0.17 to 1.55)
Social support
    Friends encourage exercise1.14 (0.73 to 1.79)1.13 (0.77 to 1.67)2.72 (0.97 to 7.64)1.62 (0.72 to 3.66)1.34 (0.73 to 2.46)1.20 (0.67 to 2.1)
    Friends exercise with1.83 (1.12 to 2.99)1.00 (0.65 to 1.55)4.39 (1.32 to 14.56)1.99 (0.81 to 4.87)1.16 (0.61 to 2.19)1.96 (1.05 to 3.6)
    Relatives encourage exercise1.19 (0.76 to 1.86)0.79 (0.52 to 1.18)1.41 (0.53 to 3.75)2.33 (1.03 to 5.28)1.47 (0.78 to 2.77)0.68 (0.37 to 1.2)
    Relatives exercise with1.03 (0.65 to 1.63)1.39 (0.93 to 2.06)1.92 (0.72 to 5.12)1.90 (0.83 to 4.35)1.07 (0.57 to 2.01)1.00 (0.55 to 1.80)