Table 2

Multivariate analysis-logistic regression of variables on meeting of US recommendations for physical activity among all urban, suburban, and rural adults*

UrbanSuburbanRural
Overall percentage55.356.249.9
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
*Adjusted for age, race, education, gender, and income.
Overall effect1.24 (1.00 to 1.55)1.29 (0.94 to 1.76)1.00 –
Age
    18–29 (ref)1.00 –1.00 –1.00 –
    30–440.93 (0.65 to 1.33)0.77 (0.36 to 1.62)0.69 (0.37 to 1.30)
    45–640.49 (0.33 to 0.73)0.71 (0.32 to 1.58)0.44 (0.24 to 0.81)
    65+0.38 (0.23 to 0.61)0.50 (0.20 to 1.26)0.63 (0.31 to 1.28)
Gender (%)
    Female (ref)1.001.001.00
    Male1.23 (0.92 to 1.66)1.38 (0.75 to 2.53)1.06 (0.69 to 1.63)
Education
    Less than high school0.71 (0.43 to 1.16)0.63 (0.21 to 1.90)0.72 (0.35 to 1.47)
    High school graduate0.63 (0.42 to 0.95)0.77 (0.38 to 1.57)0.77 (0.41 to 1.41)
    Some college or tech school0.98 (0.66 to 1.46)0.98 (0.45 to 2.14)1.07 (0.56 to 2.04)
    College or postgraduate (ref)1.001.001.00
Income ($000)
    >50 (ref)1.001.001.00
    <101.05 (0.61 to 1.82)0.77 (0.30 to 1.97)0.45 (0.20 to 0.97)
    10–201.21 (0.73 to 2.01)1.00 (0.42 to 2.41)0.61 (0.31 to 1.23)
    20–501.24 (0.80 to 1.92)1.07 (0.49 to 2.32)0.70 (0.37 to 1.32)
Race
    White (ref)1.001.001.00
    Black0.64 (0.46 to 0.89)0.72 (0.32 to 1.63)0.86 (0.51 to 1.45)
    Other0.65 (0.43 to 0.97)0.92 (0.41 to 2.10)0.65 (0.34 to 1.25)
Places to exercise Missing=282
    Walking, jogging trails1.66 (1.16 to 2.38)2.32 (1.05 to 5.09)1.61 (0.93 to 2.78)
    Neighbourhood streets1.32 (0.95 to 1.85)0.95 (0.49 to 1.82)1.56 (0.98 to 2.49)
    Park2.20 (1.58 to 3.05)2.17 (0.96 to 4.92)1.46 (0.80 to 2.68)
    Shopping mall0.97 (0.70 to 1.32)0.45 (0.22 to 0.92)0.81 (0.50 to 1.32)
    Indoor gym1.87 (1.27 to 2.77)4.10 (1.52 to 11.08)2.06 (1.13 to 3.75)
    Treadmill1.64 (1.15 to 2.36)1.76 (0.83 to 3.75)1.20 (0.68 to 2.13)
    Other equipment1.65 (1.15 to 2.35)1.59 (0.76 to 3.33)1.25 (0.72 to 2.16)
    Summary score of places
        0 place to exercise (ref)1.001.001.00
        1 place to exercise1.63 (0.61 to 4.32)0.66 (0.15 to 2.82)2.42 (0.82 to 7.16)
        2 places to exercise2.99 (1.13 to 7.90)0.62 (0.15 to 2.58)2.61 (0.86 to 7.87)
        3 places to exercise4.87 (1.83 to 13.01)0.77 (0.17 to 3.52)1.34 (0.41 to 4.34)
        4 places to exercise5.29 (1.89 to 14.79)2.16 (0.33 to 14.09)3.87 (1.11 to 13.43)
Personal barriers
    Others discourage1.12 (0.58 to 2.13)0.14 (0.02 to 1.25)1.16 (0.39 to 3.47)
    Self conscious about looks1.29 (0.83 to 2.01)0.72 (0.30 to 1.73)0.78 (0.42 to 1.47)
    Afraid of injury0.72 (0.43 to 1.21)1.13 (0.33 to 3.82)0.59 (0.25 to 1.38)
    Don’t have time0.50 (0.35 to 0.71)0.68 (0.35 to 1.31)0.82 (0.50 to 1.35)
    Too tired0.58 (0.40 to 0.83)0.74 (0.37 to 1.49)0.38 (0.22 to 0.67)
    No safe place0.60 (0.35 to 1.05)0.72 (0.21 to 2.44)1.17 (0.55 to 2.49)
    No child care1.04 (0.56 to 1.92)1.05 (0.21 to 5.24)1.10 (0.38 to 3.19)
    Bad weather0.94 (0.55 to 1.60)0.36 (0.12 to 1.12)1.32 (0.61 to 2.90)
    Not in good health0.59 (0.35 to 1.01)0.69 (0.26 to 1.84)0.42 (0.22 to 0.79)
    No energy0.47 (0.29 to 0.76)0.73 (0.33 to 1.62)0.34 (0.17 to 0.68)
    Get exercise at work1.16 (0.82 to 1.65)2.27 (1.13 to 4.56)1.53 (0.93 to 2.51)
    No motivation0.55 (0.37 to 0.83)0.67 (0.33 to 1.34)0.52 (0.28 to 0.95)
    Do not like to exercise0.60 (0.39 to 0.91)0.80 (0.37 to 1.73)0.51 (0.26 to 1.01)
    Summary score of barriers
        0 barrier1.001.001.00
        1 barrier0.66 (0.45 to 0.96)0.95 (0.46 to 2.00)0.82 (0.48 to 1.41)
        2 barriers0.42 (0.26 to 0.66)1.77 (0.69 to 4.54)0.63 (0.34 to 1.89)
        3 barriers0.38 (0.23 to 0.65)1.15 (0.34 to 3.88)0.72 (0.35 to 1.49)
Social support
    Friends encourage exercise1.12 (0.84 to 1.50)2.05 (1.11 to 3.78)1.25 (0.83 to 1.90)
    Relatives encourage exercise0.96 (0.71 to 1.29)2.04 (1.11 to 3.77)0.96 (0.62 to 1.48)
    Friends exercise with1.30 (0.94 to 1.78)2.73 (1.37 to 5.41)1.48 (0.95 to 2.31)
    Relatives exercise with1.24 (0.92 to 1.67)1.82 (1.00 to 3.33)0.99 (0.65 to 1.53)