Table 1

Characteristics of 1818 urban, suburban and rural adults participating in the National Walking Survey†

UrbanSuburbanRural
LowerHigherLowerHigherLowerHigherχ2
**p<0.005, *p<0.05. †Because of rounding error sums in blocks may not equal 100%.
Overall number (%) Missing=327359 (24.1)490 (32.9)95 (6.4)125 (8.4)205 (13.7)217 (14.6)
Age (%) Missing=9142.28**
    18–2934.428.837.920.818.514.4
    30–4427.936.025.337.620.041.2
    45–6417.926.818.930.438.033.8
    65+19.88.417.911.223.410.6
Gender (%) Missing=032.66**
    Male31.539.025.343.225.937.3
    Female68.561.074.756.874.162.7
Education (%) Missing=1240.29**
    Less than high school27.38.414.74.836.111.1
    High school graduate35.721.040.028.834.134.1
    Some college or tech school24.834.529.522.422.031.3
    College or post graduate school12.336.115.844.07.823.5
Race (%) Missing=6186.04**
    Black49.332.024.58.031.911.1
    White30.150.858.579.255.479.3
    Other20.617.217.012.812.79.7
Places to exercise (%) Missing=282
    Walking, jogging trails24.227.027.023.620.326.53.48
    Neighborhood streets74.269.159.566.063.451.929.74**
    Park39.137.424.320.813.720.158.18**
    Shopping mall44.439.641.928.334.028.618.66**
    Indoor gym21.225.716.220.816.321.29.96
    Treadmill19.232.423.029.217.021.227.27**
    Other equipment20.532.723.030.219.023.324.07*
    Summary score of places73.96**
        0–1 places to exercise28.525.736.531.143.740.2
        2–4 places to exercise64.967.556.864.153.057.7
        5 or more places to exercise6.66.86.74.83.32.1
Personal barriers (%)
    Others discourage6.54.15.412.08*
    Self conscious about looks14.310.67.415.213.810.17.85
    Afraid of injury11.85.56.34.89.44.617.80**
    Don’t have time19.225.621.127.219.325.89.43
    Too tired18.018.818.921.612.821.27.20
    No safe place9.65.56.34.88.46.98.71
    No child care7.14.55.31.64.58.71
    Bad weather7.38.08.45.67.46.91.21
    Not in good health11.05.913.76.417.29.727.15**
    No energy11.58.814.712.811.312.45.09
    Get exercise at work26.123.926.325.016.428.714.61*
    No motivation12.914.517.920.811.914.79.58
    Do not like to exercise11.213.311.619.27.912.910.90*
    Summary score of barriers83.91*
        0–2 barriers72.678.075.676.476.574.7
        3–5 barriers22.217.519.217.120.422.1
        6 or more barriers5.24.55.26.53.13.3
Social support (%)
    Friends encourage exercise59.662.872.667.762.159.99.54
    Relatives encourage exercise56.668.069.570.469.169.621.84**
    Have at least one friend to exercise with69.774.075.376.870.171.47.94
    Have at least one relative to exercise with60.463.464.964.871.164.48.13