Table 4B

Odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for never smokers in 12579 men and 15132 women aged 39–79 years, of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, 1993–1997 for models based on age, social class, level of education and components of Townsend deprivation index

Never smokers
MenWomen
Predictor variablesOR*p valueOR*p value
*Odds ratio indicates change in probability compared with the reference category. †Reference category. Predictor variables: social class—non-manual=social classes I, II, and III non-manual, manual=social classes III manual, IV, and V. Education—at least O level, no qualifications. ‡Reference category—areas with Z score below the average for England and Wales (<0).
Social class (non-manual† v manual)0.70 (0.64 to 0.76)<0.0010.98 (0.91 to 1.05) 0.51
Education (at least O level† v no qualifications)0.79 (0.72 to 0.86)<0.0010.92 (0.85 to 0.98) 0.01
Unemployment‡0.81 (0.68 to 0.95) 0.010.79 (0.69 to 0.90)<0.001
Households with no car‡0.85 (0.74 to 0.97) 0.020.89 (0.80 to 0.99) 0.03
Households not owner occupied‡0.84 (0.77 to 0.92)<0.0010.96 (0.89 to 1.03) 0.26
Overcrowding‡0.92 (0.81 to 1.05) 0.230.90 (0.81 to 1.01) 0.06