Table 3

Socioeconomic background, adult SES, and progression to regular smoking*

Unadjusted models†Childhood SES, demographic controls‡Childhood SES, demographic controls, adult SES§
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
*Discrete time survival models predicting the age at regular smoking; model includes person years from first use through regular use, defined as daily smoking for one month. †Separate models for each domain of SES controlling only for sample selection factors and time at risk. ‡Combined model for all three indicators of childhood SES, also controlling for sample selection factors, time at risk, age at first cigarette use, sex, race/ethnicity, maternal smoking, and age at interview. §Also controlling for respondent’s educational attainment.
Childhood socioeconomic status
Maternal education (y)0.88(0.84 to 0.91)0.88(0.83 to 0.93)0.91(0.86 to 0.97)
Parental occupation at subject’s birth and 7th year
    BirthAge 7
    ManualManual1.94(1.40 to 2.70)1.12(0.75 to 1.68)0.82(0.54 to 1.25)
    Not employed at birth or age 71.90(1.33 to 2.73)0.97(0.62 to 1.52)0.79(0.50 to 1.25)
    ManualNon-manual1.40(0.90 to 2.17)1.05(0.64 or 1.71)0.83(0.51 to 1.37)
    Non-manualManual1.36(0.86 to 2.15)1.00(0.61 to 1.63)0.84(0.51 to 1.39)
Household below US poverty level between subject’s birth and 7th year
    Yes1.51(1.21 to 1.88)1.27(0.99 to 1.64)1.22(0.95 to 1.58)
Adult socioeconomic status
Educational attainment (y)0.77(0.73 to 0.82)0.82(0.77 to 0.87)