Table 1

Relations between job stability measures and cause specific death and hospital admission for men (M) and women (F). Hazard ratios (HR) are for a one category increase in the job stability measure (either number of job changes or time since a job change, both determined at baseline). A series of models are fitted with accumulating control for age, three measures of social class, and, where appropriate, behavioural measures taken at baseline

Cause and outcomeControlling forMen (n=5399)Women (n=945)
Number of job changesTime since a job changeNumber of job changesTime since a job change
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
All cause mortality
(M=1534, F=160)Age1.07 ( 1.03, 1.10)0.95 ( 0.92, 0.98)1.06 (0.95, 1.19)0.96 (0.87, 1.04)
+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.02 ( 0.98, 1.05)0.98 ( 0.95, 1.01)1.06 (0.94, 1.20)0.95 (0.87, 1.04)
+ smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise0.99 ( 0.96, 1.03)1.00 ( 0.96, 1.03)1.02 (0.90, 1.15)0.97 (0.88, 1.06)
Cardiovascular disease (ICD-9: 390–459)
DeathAge1.04 (0.99, 1.09)0.98 (0.94, 1.02)1.14 (0.95, 1.37)0.94 (0.82, 1.08)
(M=790, F=65)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class0.98 (0.94, 1.03)1.01 (0.96, 1.05)1.14 (0.95, 1.37)0.94 (0.81, 1.08)
+ smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise0.96 (0.91, 1.01)1.02 (0.98, 1.07)1.11 (0.93, 1.34)0.94 (0.81, 1.09)
Death / hospitalAge1.05 (1.02, 1.08)0.97 (0.95, 1.00)1.10 (1.00, 1.22)0.96 (0.89, 1.04)
(M=1858, F=209)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.00 (0.97, 1.04)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.09 (0.98, 1.21)0.97 (0.89, 1.04)
+ smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise0.99 (0.96, 1.02)1.02 (0.99, 1.05)1.07 (0.97, 1.20)0.98 (0.91, 1.06)
Smoking related cancers (ICD-9: 140, 141, 143–150, 157, 160–163, 188, 189)
DeathAge1.10 (1.02, 1.19)0.88 (0.83, 0.95)1.03 (0.76, 1.40)0.98 (0.77, 1.24)
(M=269, F=22)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.02 (0.94, 1.12)0.91 (0.85, 0.98)1.08 (0.78, 1.49)0.96 (0.75, 1.22)
+ smoking0.99 (0.91, 1.08)0.93 (0.87, 1.01)0.99 (0.71, 1.37)1.02 (0.80, 1.30)
Death/hospital/registrationAge1.14 (1.07, 1.21)0.89 (0.84, 0.94)0.94 (0.73, 1.21)0.99 (0.81, 1.20)
(M=429, F=34)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.06 (0.99, 1.14)0.92 (0.87, 0.97)0.97 (0.74, 1.25)0.97 (0.80, 1.18)
+ smoking1.04 (0.97, 1.11)0.94 (0.88, 0.99)0.90 (0.69, 1.17)1.02 (0.83, 1.24)
Other cancer (ICD-9: 140–209, excluding smoking related cancers)
DeathAge1.10 (1.01, 1.20)0.98 (0.91, 1.06)0.89 (0.70, 1.12)1.02 (0.85, 1.22)
(M=220, F=40)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.09 (0.99, 1.20)1.00 (0.92, 1.09)0.91 (0.71, 1.16)1.00 (0.83, 1.19)
Death/hospital/registrationAge1.05 (0.99, 1.11)0.99 (0.95, 1.04)1.02 (0.88, 1.17)0.97 (0.87, 1.08)
(M=510, F=106)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.04 (0.98, 1.11)1.00 (0.95, 1.06)1.05 (0.91, 1.21)0.95 (0.86, 1.07)
Alcohol related illness (ICD-9: 291, 303, 571)
Death / hospitalAge1.13 (1.01, 1.27)0.89 (0.80, 0.98)1.05 (0.69, 1.58)0.89 (0.64, 1.24)
(M=126, F=12)+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.06 (0.94, 1.20)0.93 (0.83, 1.04)0.97 (0.62, 1.52)0.92 (0.65, 1.29)
+ alcohol consumption0.97 (0.86, 1.10)0.98 (0.87, 1.10)0.97 (0.61, 1.55)0.87 (0.60, 1.26)
All psychiatric hospital admissions
(M=147, F=27)Age1.12 (1.01, 1.24)0.90 (0.82, 0.99)1.13 (0.86, 1.49)1.05 (0.85, 1.31)
+ father's social class, own first social class, own baseline social class1.09 (0.97, 1.23)0.93 (0.84, 1.03)1.16 (0.87, 1.53)1.05 (0.84, 1.31)
  • Smoking categories: never, ex and current smokers, with the latter divided into those smoking 1–14, 15–24, and 25+ cigarettes per day. Alcohol consumption categories: 0, 1–7, 8–14, 15–21, 22–34, and 35+ units of alcohol per week. Physical exercise categories: 0, 0–3.5, 3.5–7, 7–14, and 14+ hours per week outside work.