Table 4

Variables associated with health status (SF-36 dimensions): results of stepwise linear regression

Energy and vitalityHealth perceptionMental healthPainPhysical functioningRole limitation mentalRole limitation physicalSocial functioning
BSESigBSESigBSESigBSESigBSESigBSESigBSESigBSESig
(Constant)72.8610.9280.00089.1141.3650.00082.9420.9140.00094.5661.3430.00099.1171.0400.00097.6841.1500.00098.5181.0540.00090.3041.2050.000
Age−0.1230.021 0.000 −0.2430.021 0.000 −0.2690.019 0.000 −0.1640.018 0.000
Sex (4-150female)
 male4.5640.419 0.000 4.2990.383 0.000 4.2560.481 0.000 2.8460.359 0.000 3.2480.454 0.000 2.1060.436 0.000 2.7300.492 0.000
Social class (4-150I)
 IIIM−1.8350.686 0.008
Age at end f/t education (4-15016 or less)
 19 or over1.5950.538 0.003
 student−7.6061.569 0.000 −5.3781.541 0.000
Employment status (4-150full time)
 student−4.4001.245 0.000
 retired−4.0230.879 0.000 −5.8110.957 0.000 −3.9370.852 0.000 −6.5131.084 0.000 −6.5390.855 0.000 −7.7291.008 0.000 −11.6760.978 0.000 −7.0381.094 0.000
 unable to work−26.9571.053 0.000 −34.5411.128 0.000 −21.0221.001 0.000 −38.4631.276 0.000 −46.0251.009 0.000 −38.1751.168 0.000 −59.4331.134 0.000 −43.0781.293 0.000
 unemployed−3.7491.305 0.004 −3.6781.140 0.001 −6.1391.343 0.000 −7.0181.294 0.000 −6.3761.479 0.000
 caring−4.2980.737 0.000 −2.6850.731 0.000 −4.9080.709 0.000 −2.2350.848 0.008 −6.7040.808 0.000 −5.0720.777 0.000 −7.3520.916 0.000
 part time−1.4480.517 0.005 −2.2440.614 0.000
Ethnic group (4-150white)
 black−8.1382.247 0.000 −6.6352.024 0.001 −6.5811.979 0.001 −6.4822.214 0.003
 asian3.0981.076 0.004 −3.5461.144 0.002 −5.1321.033 0.000 −5.1411.155 0.000 −3.4081.148 0.003
Marital status (4-150living as/married)
 widowed−5.2691.564 0.001
 divorced−2.4380.671 0.000 −3.0130.795 0.000 −4.7240.859 0.000
 single−2.2670.457 0.000 −2.0440.519 0.000 −2.1740.613 0.000 −2.1450.602 0.000
Accommodation (4-150mortgaged)
 rented from council−2.0630.714 0.004
Crowded home (4-150much too large)
 just about right1.3870.454 0.002 1.6390.393 0.000 1.6320.461 0.000 2.5340.686 0.000
 slightly crowded−2.4480.552 0.000 2.6370.876 0.003
Damp housing (4-150no problem)
 nuisance−1.8520.690 0.007
Home not warm enough (4-150never)
 most of the time−6.9321.224 0.000 −4.9851.318 0.000 −5.3521.121 0.000 −7.2901.489 0.000 −4.5791.201 0.000 −5.2421.370 0.000 −5.4721.330 0.000 −5.9631.445 0.000
 quite often−5.9530.857 0.000 −5.4250.930 0.000 −4.8760.786 0.000 −7.8171.037 0.000 −4.8080.825 0.000 −6.0170.942 0.000 −5.2070.913 0.000 −6.8491.011 0.000
 only occasionally−2.1490.422 0.000 −2.4770.453 0.000 −1.6810.386 0.000 −2.2440.508 0.000 −1.2120.397 0.002 −2.3340.456 0.000 −2.4290.441 0.000 −2.5670.497 0.000
Nuisance from dogs (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−1.1940.439 0.007
Disturbance by children or youngsters (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−1.2630.443 0.004
 serious problem−2.6530.770 0.001 −3.2390.947 0.001 −2.9600.875 0.001 −3.5811.019 0.000
Poor street lighting (4-150no problem)
 serious problem−2.9460.995 0.003 −2.4350.792 0.002
Noise (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−1.2480.422 0.003
Smells and fumes (4-150no problem)
 serious problem−2.8931.016 0.004
Lack of open spaces (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−2.1130.637 0.001 −1.7050.550 0.002 −2.2320.726 0.002 −1.7080.570 0.003 −2.5690.653 0.000 −1.9690.635 0.002 −2.9730.712 0.000
 serious problem−3.1641.202 0.009
Poor public transport (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−1.4170.445 0.001
Uneven or dangerous pavements (4-150no problem)
 serious problem−2.5060.812 0.002 −2.5380.897 0.005
Vandalism (4-150no problem)
 minor problem−1.6170.466 0.001
 serious problem−2.8210.965 0.003
Desire to move away (4-150strongly want to stay)
 prefer to stay−1.7750.418 0.000
 don't mind−2.3940.485 0.000
 prefer to move−3.5700.624 0.000 −2.8350.734 0.000
 very strongly−3.2940.888 0.000 −3.3521.094 0.002
Smoking (4-150never)
 current−3.1510.507 0.000 −2.1480.560 0.000
 ex smoker−1.7860.478 0.000
Passive smoking (4-150never)
 occasionally1.5880.427 0.000 1.7360.471 0.000 1.7020.374 0.000 1.5940.410 0.000 1.4150.474 0.003
Alcohol (4-150none)
 drinker1.6090.580 0.006 2.5180.620 0.000 2.5770.680 0.000 4.2570.556 0.000 4.1820.614 0.000 3.5740.668 0.000
Portions of fruit and veg /week (4-1505+)
 three or four1.1270.422 0.008
 one or two−1.3490.391 0.001 −1.1110.358 0.002
 less than one−3.5780.714 0.000 −3.3360.763 0.000 −3.3760.659 0.000 −2.4500.816 0.003
Vigorous exercise (4-1505+ per week)
 3–4 per week1.8620.607 0.002
 1–2 per week−3.1940.632 0.000 −3.6750.668 0.000
 <1 per week−5.0900.680 0.000 −6.0760.719 0.000 −2.2170.520 0.000
 never−8.6320.573 0.000 −9.0960.623 0.000 −1.6660.361 0.000 −2.1880.488 0.000 −4.8080.406 0.000 −1.5690.462 0.001 −3.0390.409 0.000 −2.5640.492 0.000
Worry about money (4-150never)
 all of the time−11.2830.881 0.000 −5.6890.842 0.000 −13.0420.831 0.000 −7.7501.094 0.000 −3.3770.705 0.000 −9.3550.862 0.000 −3.7930.774 0.000 −10.0020.946 0.000
 a lot of the time−6.0490.691 0.000 −3.0470.592 0.000 −6.3550.645 0.000 −5.0850.854 0.000 −3.5230.610 0.000 −3.4240.659 0.000
 some of the time−4.0670.616 0.000 −3.7040.568 0.000 −3.7000.745 0.000 −1.8240.491 0.000
 a little of the time−2.8940.588 0.000 −1.7970.542 0.001
Worry about job security (4-150never)
 all of the time−4.7061.133 0.000 −4.0861.484 0.006 −5.2221.470 0.000
 a lot of the time−2.2970.792 0.004 −3.2510.701 0.000 −2.1190.783 0.007 −3.6300.905 0.000
 some of the time−1.6500.519 0.001 −2.5080.485 0.000 −1.5780.570 0.006 −1.9330.630 0.002
Worry about pressure at work (4-150never)
 all of the time−17.4900.890 0.000 −9.1450.938 0.000 −16.4310.919 0.000 −6.4701.103 0.000 −14.6120.973 0.000 −8.3450.931 0.000 −14.4691.184 0.000
 a lot of the time−10.9690.568 0.000 −5.3390.599 0.000 −10.4740.647 0.000 −4.1560.688 0.000 −9.0010.629 0.000 −4.0010.590 0.000 −9.2450.827 0.000
 some of the time−3.8380.476 0.000 −1.9300.497 0.000 −4.1700.561 0.000 −1.5710.568 0.006 −2.6740.515 0.000 −2.4380.485 0.000 −3.3560.718 0.000
 a little of the time−1.4690.530 0.006 1.1290.407 0.006
  • 4-150 = reference category. 95% confidence intervals for the regression coefficients can be calculated as follows: 95% CI approximately B ± 1.96 × SE(B)