Table 1

Results of an evaluation of a family-planning communication intervention in Nepal*

Outcome of interestGroupEstimated effect of the intervention
Not listened to soap operaListened to soap operaUnadjusted analysisIncluding potential confounders in regression modelUsing propensity scores approachUsing ‘listens to the radio weekly’ as an instrument
Current use of a modern contraceptive method31%43%+12%+6.2%+9.2%+8.5%
  • * The data on which these analyses are based are downloadable on request from

  • Probit regression, a statistical approach from the same family as logistic and linear regression that are more commonly used in public health, was used to estimate risk differences as presented in the table. The principles we discuss apply equally to other regression methods. Variables included in the model as confounders were: woman's age, woman's educational level, household asset index, religion, lives in rural area, visited by family-planning worker in past 12 months, currently employed, number of living children, husband's education, watches television weekly, listens to radio weekly.

  • No information provided on variables used to calculate propensity score.