Table 4

Urban compared with rural differences in reported health related variables, psychosocial variables, environmental characteristics, and physical advice to exercise

Urban Rural χ2or t
Health related variables:
 Number of sick days in past month
Physical limitation (%)24.424.80.05
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.128.4 4-160−5.04
Psychosocial variables:
Perceived barriers (% who reported the barrier “often” or “very often”)
 Others discourage me4.26.9 4-1507.62
 Self conscious about appearance19.418.60.23
 Afraid of injury12.917.1 4-1507.81
 Lack of time22.124.21.36
 Too tired19.823.44.36
 Lack a safe place17.822.5 4-1507.88
 Caregiving duties19.625.1 4-16010.33
 Bad weather8.910.92.64
 Not in good health14.817.52.94
 Lack energy21.023.92.84
Number of perceived barriers rated as occurring “often” or “very often”
 Mean1.611.87 4-160−3.77
Social support for LTPA
Environmental characteristics (%):
 Side walks79.515.2 4-160971.59
 Heavy traffic41.339.11.16
 Street lights80.931.9 4-160564.10
 Unattended dogs33.654.2 4-16098.71
 Enjoyable scenery84.285.61.00
 Frequently see others exercising73.751.6 4-160120.61
 High crime26.015.8 4-16036.98
 Access to facilities84.464.2 4-160122.31
Physician advice to exercise (%):
  • 4-150 p<0.01.

  • 4-160 p<0.001. Higher scores on the social support scale indicate less support.