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Association of childhood food consumption and dietary pattern with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolomics in late adolescence: prospective evidence from ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort
  1. Baoting He1,
  2. Hugh Simon Lam2,
  3. Yangbo Sun3,
  4. Man Ki Kwok1,
  5. Gabriel M Leung1,
  6. C Mary Schooling1,4,
  7. Shiu Lun Au Yeung1
  1. 1School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medcine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China
  2. 2Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China
  3. 3Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, US
  4. 4City University of New York, Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York, US
  1. Correspondence to Dr Baoting He, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; hbaoting{at}hku.hk

Abstract

Background Healthy diet might protect against cardiometabolic diseases, but uncertainty exists about its definition and role in adolescence.

Method In a subset of Hong Kong’s ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort (n=2844 out of 8327), we prospectively examined sex-specific associations of food consumption and dietary pattern, proxied by the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) at~12.0 years, with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolomics at~17.6 years.

Result Higher vegetable (−0.04 SD, 95% CIs: −0.09 to 0.00) and soy consumption (−0.05 SD, 95% CI: −0.09 to −0.01) were associated with lower waist-to-hip ratio. Higher fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with lower fasting glucose (p<0.05). Higher fish consumption was associated with 0.06 SD (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and −0.07 SD (95% CI: −0.11 to −0.02) triglycerides. After correcting for multiple comparisons (p<0.001), higher fish, fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with higher fatty acid unsaturation, higher concentration and percentage of omega-3 and a lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3. At nominal significance (p<0.05), higher fish consumption was associated with lower very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides relevant metabolomics. Higher vegetable and fruit consumption were associated with lower glycolysis-related metabolomics. Lower sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption was associated with lower branched-chain amino acids. Similar associations with adiposity and metabolomics biomarkers were observed for GDQS.

Conclusions Higher consumption of fruit, vegetables and fish and lower ice cream and SSBs consumption were associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.

  • ADOLESCENT
  • DIET
  • COHORT STUDIES
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. The data that support the findings of this study are available from ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort data access committee: aprmay97@hku.hk.

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Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. The data that support the findings of this study are available from ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort data access committee: aprmay97@hku.hk.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors BH and SLAY designed this study. CMS and GML contributed to the maintenance and renewal of the cohort, and the longitudinal data collection, with the help of SLAY, MKK and HSL. BH wrote the analysis plan, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript, with critical feedback from CMS and SLAY. GML, HSL, MKK and YS helped revise the draft. All authors contributed to critical revision of the analysis plan and the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final version of the manuscript. BH is the guarantor of the study.

  • Funding This work is a substudy of the ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort which was initially supported by the Health Care and Promotion Fund, Health and Welfare Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong SAR (HCPF Grant # 216106) and re-established in 2005 funded by the Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF Grant # 03040771, 05060671, 07080751, 07080841) and the Research Fund for the Control of Infectious Diseases in Hong Kong (RFCID Grant # 04050172, 06060592), Government of the Hong Kong SAR. The birth cohort has also received funding from the University Research Committee Strategic Research Theme (SRT) of Public Health Granted Research, The University of Hong Kong. The most recent follow-up was partly funded by the WYNG Foundation. This substudy received funding from Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong (HMRF # 17181271, 20211651 and CFS-HKU1), and Pre-emptive retention/Start up fund, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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