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Association of childhood food consumption and dietary pattern with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolomics in late adolescence: prospective evidence from ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort

Abstract

Background Healthy diet might protect against cardiometabolic diseases, but uncertainty exists about its definition and role in adolescence.

Method In a subset of Hong Kong’s ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort (n=2844 out of 8327), we prospectively examined sex-specific associations of food consumption and dietary pattern, proxied by the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) at~12.0 years, with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolomics at~17.6 years.

Result Higher vegetable (−0.04 SD, 95% CIs: −0.09 to 0.00) and soy consumption (−0.05 SD, 95% CI: −0.09 to −0.01) were associated with lower waist-to-hip ratio. Higher fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with lower fasting glucose (p<0.05). Higher fish consumption was associated with 0.06 SD (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and −0.07 SD (95% CI: −0.11 to −0.02) triglycerides. After correcting for multiple comparisons (p<0.001), higher fish, fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with higher fatty acid unsaturation, higher concentration and percentage of omega-3 and a lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3. At nominal significance (p<0.05), higher fish consumption was associated with lower very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides relevant metabolomics. Higher vegetable and fruit consumption were associated with lower glycolysis-related metabolomics. Lower sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption was associated with lower branched-chain amino acids. Similar associations with adiposity and metabolomics biomarkers were observed for GDQS.

Conclusions Higher consumption of fruit, vegetables and fish and lower ice cream and SSBs consumption were associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.

  • ADOLESCENT
  • DIET
  • COHORT STUDIES
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. The data that support the findings of this study are available from ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the ‘Children of 1997’ Birth Cohort data access committee: aprmay97@hku.hk.

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