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There is emerging evidence that ambient air pollution exposure is linked with a variety of health outcomes, including respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological disorders. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides have been identified by WHO and the European Environmental Agency as those of key human health concerns.1 2 Most non-communicable diseases have been associated, besides air pollution, with a number of behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption or unhealthy diet.3 4 An important question is whether the effects of air pollution on cardiometabolic health are modified by lifestyle factors5 or vice versa.
The paper by Cai et al investigated the effects of long-term PM exposure on the hypertension and diabetes separately and as a combination of these outcomes, and the authors examined interaction effects between PM exposures and comprehensive set of lifestyle-related factors on these health outcomes using more than 82 000 adult participants from 55 communities selected in South China. The results showed …
Contributors AD and AB equally drafted and revised the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.