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Status and disparities of diabetes among urban and rural residents aged 40 years and older: insight from a population-based study in northeast China, 2017–2019

Abstract

Objectives To evaluate the up-to-date epidemiology of diabetes in northeast China.

Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2017 and March 2019 using a multistage, stratified and cluster random sampling method. 18 796 participants (28.9% urban and 71.1% rural) aged ≥40 years were enrolled. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were diagnosed according to the history, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels.

Results The prevalence of diabetes was 17.1%, higher in urban than in rural residents (20.2% vs 15.8%, p<0.001). Meanwhile, the prevalence of pre-diabetes was 44.3%, higher in rural than in urban areas (49.4% vs 31.8%, p<0.001). The overall FPG and HbA1c were 6.10±1.94 mmol/L and 5.59%±1.08%. The FPG level was higher in rural area than in urban areas (6.15±1.83 mmol/L vs 5.97±2.18 mmol/L, p<0.001). Among participants with diabetes, 47.5% were aware of their diabetes condition; 39.5% were taking antidiabetic medications and 36.8% of people had their diabetes controlled. The awareness and treatment rates in rural areas were lower than those in urban areas (47.3% vs 57.5%, 34.4% vs 49.5%, p<0.001). Patients with diabetic, especially those in rural areas, tended to have multiple risk factors including hypertension (71.7%), overweight or obesity (69.6%) and dyslipidaemia (52.8%).

Conclusion A considerable burden of diabetes was observed in northeast China, with high percentage of untreated diabetes, high prevalence of pre-diabetes, high overall FPG level and multiple uncontrolled risk factors in patients with diabetics. Therefore, region-specific strategies on prevention and management of diabetes should be emphasised.

  • diabetes
  • epidemiology of diabetes
  • epidemiology

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