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Approximately 7 years has passed since Japan’s 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent huge tsunami. This was the world’s worst nuclear accident since Ukraine’s 1986 Chernobyl accident. The radiation exposure attributable to the accident is limited to a lifetime effective dose of ~30 mSv.1 In Fukushima, as at Chernobyl and other nuclear disasters, radiological measures for individuals—whole-body counter (WBC) testing, personal dosimetry and thyroid examination testing—have been implemented, with different ‘nudge’ design in testing measures.2 For WBC testing, adults are voluntarily tested (opt-in; ‘not get tested’ is the default selection and ‘get tested’ is a choice). In contrast, thyroid ultrasound examination, offered in every school, is designed for children to participate as the default (opt-out; ‘get tested’ is the default selection and ‘not get tested’ is an option). Further, personal dosimetry, administered by local authorities, was initially required as the default …
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