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The importance of community education for individual mortality: a fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal multilevel data on 1.7 million Norwegian women and men
  1. Øystein Kravdal
  1. Correspondence to Professor Øystein Kravdal, Department of Economics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1095, Blindern, Oslo 0317, Norway; okravdal{at}


Background Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear, and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether any effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were any differences between women and men.

Methods Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981–2002 for all Norwegians aged 60–89, using register data. There were 730 000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years.

Results According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size (time-averaged) reversed the effects. Inclusion of municipality dummies instead of population size, to control also for additional unobserved time-invariant municipality characteristics, gave very different results: the effects were even stronger for men, while those for women were no longer significant. The results were quite robust to alternative specifications, including the use of a lagged average-education variable.

Conclusion The study supports the idea that community socio-economic resources may affect mortality and suggests that sex differentials may deserve more attention. It also illustrates the importance of controlling for time-invariant community factors. Unless these can be easily measured, in future investigations one may consider establishing longitudinal data and using a fixed-effects approach such as that used here.

  • Community
  • education
  • fixed-effects
  • mortality
  • multilevel
  • education FQ
  • modelling ME
  • mortality SI
  • multilevel modelling
  • socio-economic

Statistics from


  • Funding The study has been funded by the Norwegian Research Council.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The Data Inspectorate and the Regional Ethical Committee have approved the use of the data.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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