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Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women
  1. Yohei Mineharu1,
  2. Akio Koizumi2,*,
  3. Yasuhiko Wada3,
  4. Hiroyasu Iso4,
  5. Yoshiyuki Watanabe5,
  6. Chigusa Date6,
  7. Akio Yamamoto7,
  8. Shogo Kikuchi8,
  9. Yutaka Inaba9,
  10. Hideaki Toyoshima8,
  11. Takaaki Kondo8,
  12. Akiko Tamakoshi8
  1. 1 Kyoto University, Japan;
  2. 2 Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan;
  3. 3 Kansai Rosai Hospital, Japan;
  4. 4 Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan;
  5. 5 Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Science, Japan;
  6. 6 Nara Women's University, Japan;
  7. 7 Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Japan;
  8. 8 Aichi Medical University, Japan;
  9. 9 Jissen Women's University, Japan
  1. Correspondence to: Akio Koizumi, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho Shogoin Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan; koizumi{at}


Background: The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries. Methods: To examine the relationship between consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, we prospectively followed 76,979 individuals aged 40-79 y free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cancer at entry. Daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires. Results: We documented 1362 deaths from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1,010,787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval for those drinking 1-6 cups/wk, 1-2 cups/d and a ‰Ψ3 cups/d were 0.78 (0.50-1.20), 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and 0.45 (0.17-0.87) for strokes among men (p=0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HRs for those drinking 1-6 cups/wk, 1-2 cups/d, 3-5 cups/d and a ‰Ψ6 cups/d were 0.34 (0.06-1.75), 0.28 (0.07-1.11), 0.39 (0.18-0.85), and 0.42 (0.17-0.88) for CHD among women (p=0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HRs of those drinking 1-6 cups/wk and a ‰Ψ1 cups/d were 1.00 (0.65-1.55) and 0.39 (0.17-0.88) for total CVD among men (p=0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women. Conclusions: Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.

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