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Socioeconomic status, race, and COPD health outcomes
  1. Mark D Eisner1,*,
  2. Paul D Blanc1,
  3. Theodore A Omachi1,
  4. Edward H Yelin1,
  5. Stephen Sidney2,
  6. Patricia P Katz1,
  7. Lynn M Ackerson2,
  8. Gabriela Sanchez2,
  9. Irina Tolstykh2,
  10. Carlos Iribarren2
  1. 1 University of California, San Francisco, United States;
  2. 2 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, United States
  1. Correspondence to: Mark D Eisner, University of California San Francisco, "350 Parnassus Ave, Ste 609", United States; mark.eisner{at}


Background: Although COPD is a common cause of death and disability, little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and race-ethnicity on health outcomes.

Methods: We aimed to determine the independent impacts of SES and race-ethnicity on COPD severity status, functional limitations, and acute exacerbations of COPD among patients with access to health care. Data were used from the FLOW cohort study of 1,202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Plan members with COPD.

Results: Lower educational attainment and household income were consistently related to greater disease severity, poorer lung function, and greater physical functional limitations in cross-sectional analysis. Black race was associated with greater COPD severity, but these differences were no longer apparent after controlling for SES variables and other covariates (comorbidities, smoking, body mass index, and occupational exposures). Both lower education and income were independently related to a greater prospective risk of acute COPD exacerbation (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.1; and HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, respectively).

Conclusion: Low SES is a risk factor for a broad array of adverse COPD health outcomes. Clinicians and disease management programs should consider SES as a key patient-level marker of risk for poor outcomes.

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