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Evidence from the 2001 English Census on the contribution of employment status to the social gradient in self rated health.
  1. Frank Popham1,
  2. Clare Bambra2
  1. 1 St Andrews University, United Kingdom;
  2. 2 University of Durham, United Kingdom
  1. * Corresponding author; email: clare.bambra{at}


Background: Unemployment and economic inactivity are associated with poor health. There are social gradients in unemployment and economic inactivity so it was hypothesised that they may contribute to the social gradient in self rated health.

Methods: Data on employment status, socio-economic position (SEP), and self-rated heath were obtained for people of working age (25-59) who had ever worked from a 3% sample of the 2001 English census. The age adjusted prevalence differences in not good general health for four separate measures of SEP were compared to the prevalence differences obtained after additional adjustment for employment status.

Results: Prevalence differences for not good health were reduced by 50% or over when adjusting for employment status (for men ranging from 57% to 81%, for women 50% to 74%).

Discussion: The social gradient in employment status contributes greatly to the social gradient in self-reported health. Understanding why this is the case could be important for tackling social inequalities in health.

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