Background Reduction of intimate partner violence (IPV) is a recognized public health goal. IPV is a significant barrier to equal participation, quality of life, and personal, social and economic development throughout the world. Relative to research on IPV against women, research on IPV against men is limited, especially in low and middle-income countries. While IPV is primarily viewed as health/human rights issue, this study explores the productivity impacts of IPV on male survivors.
Methods Employing an anonymous self-filled questionnaire, 414 male employees in Ghana, 264 male employees in Pakistan, and 357 male employees in South Sudan, working in manufacturing and services sector, were interviewed. The productivity impact of IPV on male survivors was measured using absenteeism (missing work), tardiness (getting late) and presenteeism (not being mentally present at work), subsequent to the violence experience in the last 12 months.
Results About 4 out of 10 partnered male employees in Ghana report experiencing IPV in the last 12 months (41%). Compared to Ghana, the prevalence of IPV was lower in Pakistan (12%) and higher in South Sudan (59%). In Ghana, 73% of survivors report missing, on average, 5 workdays due to IPV in the last 12 months. Similarly, in Pakistan, 59% of survivors report missing, on average, 11 workdays due to IPV, and in South Sudan, 63% of survivors report missing, on average, 4 workdays due to IPV.
Conclusion In Ghana and South Sudan, a very high proportion of male employees report experiencing IPV in the last 12 months. Despite the prevalence of IPV being low in Pakistan, the proportion of survivors experiencing productivity impacts in very high in all countries. The results of this study suggest the need for strong intervention by businesses as the violence has productivity impacts for both male employees, which translate into significant economic costs for businesses.
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