Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Low-income neighbourhood was a key determinant of severe COVID-19 incidence during the first wave of the epidemic in Paris


Background Previous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic factors are associated with COVID-19 incidence. In this study, we analysed a broad range of socioeconomic indicators in relation to hospitalised cases in the Paris area.

Methods We extracted 303 socioeconomic indicators from French census data for 855 residential units in Paris and assessed their association with COVID-19 hospitalisation risk.

Findings The indicators most associated with hospitalisation risk were the third decile of population income (OR=9.10, 95% CI 4.98 to 18.39), followed by the primary residence rate (OR=5.87, 95% CI 3.46 to 10.61), rate of active workers in unskilled occupations (OR=5.04, 95% CI 3.03 to 8.85) and rate of women over 15 years old with no diploma (OR=5.04, 95% CI 3.03 to 8.85). Of note, population demographics were considerably less associated with hospitalisation risk. Among these indicators, the rate of women aged between 45 and 59 years (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.44) exhibited the greatest level of association, whereas population density was not associated. Overall, 86% of COVID-19 hospitalised cases occurred within the 45% most deprived areas.

Interpretation Studying a broad range of socioeconomic indicators using census data and hospitalisation data as a readily available and large resource can provide real-time indirect information on populations with a high incidence of COVID-19.

  • healthcare disparities
  • cohort studies
  • communicable diseases
  • COVID-19
  • deprivation

This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.