Background Many factors related to susceptibility or vulnerability to temperature effects on mortality have been proposed in the literature. However, there is limited evidence of effect modification by some individual-level factors such as occupation, colour/race, education level and community-level factors. We investigated the effect modification of the temperature–cardiovascular mortality relationship by individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Methods We used a case-crossover study to estimate the total effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in Rio de Janeiro between 2001 and 2018, and the effect modification by individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors. Individual-level factors included sex, age, colour/race, education, and place of death. Neighbourhood-level characteristics included social development index (SDI), income, electricity consumption and demographic change. We used conditional Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models, adjusted for humidity and public holidays.
Results Our results suggest a higher vulnerability to high temperatures among the elderly, women, non-hospitalised deaths, and people with a lower education level. Vulnerability to low temperatures was higher among the elderly, men, non-white people, and for primary education level. As for neighbourhood-level factors, we identified greater vulnerability to low and high temperatures in places with lower SDI, lower income, lower consumption of electricity, and higher demographic growth.
Conclusion The effects of temperature on cardiovascular disease mortality in Rio de Janeiro vary according to individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors. These findings are valuable to inform policymakers about the most vulnerable groups and places, in order to develop more effective and equitable public policies.
- Cardiovascular disease
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
Contributors Conceptualisation: all authors. Methodology: IHS, TRC. Data curation: IHS, TRC, BBFAO. Analysis: IHS. Validation: TRC. Writing—original draft: IHS, TRC. Writing—review and editing: TRC, BBFAO, WLJ. Approval of the final version of the manuscript: all authors.
Funding This study was supported in part by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—CAPES (finance code 001), the Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro—FAPERJ (grant number E-26/202.756/2018) and the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development—CNPq (grant numbers 307495/2018-3 and 406292/2018-3).
Map disclaimer The depiction of boundaries on the map(s) in this article does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ (or any member of its group) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. The map(s) are provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request.
Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.