Background Maternal thyroid hormones’ supply is crucial for fetal neurodevelopment; however, the role of maternal mild thyroid dysfunction is not clear. We aimed to assess the association of maternal mild thyroid dysfunction with child neuropsychological development from infancy to early childhood.
Methods We included 757 mother–child pairs from the prospective ‘Rhea’ cohort on Crete, Greece. Maternal thyroid functioning was assessed by quantitative analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies at early gestation (mean=14 weeks). Neuropsychological assessment was based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (18 months of age), McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (4 years of age), Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices, Trail Making Test and Finger Tapping Test (6 years of age).
Results In multivariate adjusted linear regression analyses, maternal hypothyroxinemia was associated with decreased verbal scores at 4 years and reduced motor speed at 6 years of age. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity was associated with decreased child perceptual and motor ability at 4 years of age. Four trajectories of longitudinal non-verbal cognitive development were identified and children exposed to maternal thyroid autoimmunity had increased risk for belonging to an adverse trajectory (‘low’: adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.7 95% CI: (1.4, 5.2), ‘high-decreasing’: adjusted RRR = 2.2 95% CI: (1.2, 4.0), ‘low-increasing’: adjusted RRR = 1.8 95% CI: (1.0, 3.2)).
Conclusion Maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with reduced offspring verbal and motor ability. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity is associated with decreased offspring perceptual performance and motor ability and increased risk for adverse non-verbal cognitive development from infancy to childhood.
- Cohort studies
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Contributors MKa contributed to the design of this work, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation and drafted the manuscript. KM contributed to the design of this work, data analysis and interpretation. KK, AK, DA, PK and GC contributed to data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. MV contributed to the design of this study and data interpretation. MKo contributed to the conception and design of this study. LC contributed to the conception and design of this study and directed its implementation. All authors have critically revised and edited the manuscript and approved its final version.
Funding The ‘Rhea’ project was financially supported by European projects (EU FP6-2003-Food-3-NewGeneris, EU FP6. STREP Hiwate, EU FP7 ENV.2007.1.2.2.2. Project No. 211250 Escape, EU FP7-2008-ENV-184.108.40.206 Envirogenomarkers, EU FP7-HEALTH-2009—single-stage CHICOS, EU FP7 ENV.2008.1.2.1.6. Proposal No 226285 ENRIECO, EU FP7.2007–2013—-Project No 308333-The Helix Project and the Greek Ministry of Health (Programme of prevention of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders in preschool children, in Heraklion district, Crete, Greece: 2011–2014), (‘Rhea Plus’: Primary prevention programme of environmental risk factors for reproductive health, and child health: 2012–2015). The funding bodies had no involvement in the production of this article.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.
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