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Fish consumption and risk of depression: a meta-analysis
  1. Fang Li,
  2. Xiaoqin Liu,
  3. Dongfeng Zhang
  1. Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China
  1. Correspondence to Professor Dongfeng Zhang, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The Medical College of Qingdao University, 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266021, People's Republic of China; zhangdf1961{at}


Background The association between fish consumption and risk of depression is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association.

Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science database for all relevant studies up to March 2015. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs from individual studies with random effects model, and conducted meta-regression to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated by Egger's test and the funnel plot.

Results A total of 26 studies involving 150 278 participants were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled RR of depression for the highest versus lowest consumption of fish was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.93). The findings remained significant in the cohort studies (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94, n=10) as well as in the cross-sectional studies (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.00, n=16). When men and women were analysed separately, a significant inverse association was also observed. There was no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions This meta-analysis indicates that high-fish consumption can reduce the risk of depression.

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