Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Trends in inequalities in premature mortality: a study of 3.2 million deaths in 13 European countries

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • i Henceforth, we will use the term socioeconomic status (SES) to indicate someone's standing in the stratification system. Although SES is much broader a concept than education, we think it is appropriate to couch the following in terms of SES. Since inequalities in health behaviours and mortality have been shown according to a number of SES measures, suggesting that the particular SES measure used is not of key importance here.

  • ii The results of Mackenbach et al1 are in agreement with these previous studies, since, conversely to the trend of deepening absolute inequalities in mortality from external causes, liver cirrhosis and lung cancer, the trend in all-cause mortality is one of narrowing absolute inequalities.

Linked Articles

  • Health inequalities
    Johan P Mackenbach Ivana Kulhánová Gwenn Menvielle Matthias Bopp Carme Borrell Giuseppe Costa Patrick Deboosere Santiago Esnaola Ramune Kalediene Katalin Kovacs Mall Leinsalu Pekka Martikainen Enrique Regidor Maica Rodriguez-Sanz Bjørn Heine Strand Rasmus Hoffmann Terje A Eikemo Olof Östergren Olle Lundberg Chris White Lynsey Brown Otto Andersen Anita Lange