Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Influence of room heating on ambulatory blood pressure in winter: a randomised controlled study
  1. Keigo Saeki1,
  2. Kenji Obayashi1,
  3. Junko Iwamoto2,
  4. Yuu Tanaka3,
  5. Noriyuki Tanaka4,
  6. Shota Takata4,
  7. Hiroko Kubo5,
  8. Nozomi Okamoto1,
  9. Kimiko Tomioka1,
  10. Satoko Nezu1,
  11. Norio Kurumatani1
  1. 1Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara, Japan
  2. 2Department of Nursing, Tenri Health Care University, Nara, Japan
  3. 3Department of Anesthesiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara, Japan
  4. 4Daiwa House Industry Co., Ltd., Nara, Japan
  5. 5Department of Environmental Health, Nara Women's University, Nara, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Keigo Saeki, Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara 634-8521, Japan; saekik{at}


Background Previous studies have proposed that higher blood pressure (BP) in winter is an important cause of increased mortality from cardiovascular disease during the winter. Some observational and physiological studies have shown that cold exposure increases BP, but evidence from a randomised controlled study assessing the effectiveness of intensive room heating for lowering BP was lacking.

Objectives The present study aimed to determine whether intensive room heating in winter decreases ambulatory BP as compared with weak room heating resulting in a 10°C lower target room temperature when sufficient clothing and bedclothes are available.

Methods We conducted a parallel group, assessor blinded, simple randomised controlled study with 1:1 allocation among 146 healthy participants in Japan from November 2009 to March 2010. Ambulatory BP was measured while the participants stayed in single experimental rooms from 21:00 to 8:00. During the session, participants could adjust the amount of clothing and bedclothes as required. Compared with the weak room heating group (mean temperature±SD: 13.9±3.3°C), systolic morning BP (mean BP 2 h after getting out of bed) of the intensive room heating group (24.2±1.7°C) was significantly lower by 5.8 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4 to 9.3). Sleep-trough morning BP surges (morning BP minus lowest night-time BP) in the intensive room heating group were significantly suppressed to about two thirds of the values in the weak room heating group (14.3 vs 21.9 mm Hg; p<0.01).

Conclusions Intensive room heating decreased morning BP and the morning BP surge in winter.

  • Randomised Trials
  • Temperature
  • Blood Pressure
  • Environmental Health

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.