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Cost-effectiveness of introducing the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the universal immunisation of infants in Brazil
  1. Ana Marli Christovam Sartori1,
  2. Patricia Coelho de Soárez2,
  3. Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes2
  1. 1Clinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  2. 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Av Dr Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 4o andar, sala 4028. Sao Paulo, SP 05403 000, Brazil; anasartori{at}


Background Cost-effectiveness studies have been increasingly part of decision processes for incorporating new vaccines into the Brazilian National Immunisation Program. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the universal childhood immunisation programme in Brazil.

Methods A decision-tree analytical model based on the ProVac Initiative pneumococcus model was used, following 25 successive cohorts from birth until 5 years of age. Two strategies were compared: (1) status quo and (2) universal childhood immunisation programme with PCV10. Epidemiological and cost estimates for pneumococcal disease were based on National Health Information Systems and literature. A ‘top-down’ costing approach was employed. Costs are reported in 2004 Brazilian reals. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3%.

Results 25 years after implementing the PCV10 immunisation programme, 10 226 deaths, 360 657 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 433 808 hospitalisations and 5 117 109 outpatient visits would be avoided. The cost of the immunisation programme would be R$10 674 478 765, and the expected savings on direct medical costs and family costs would be R$1 036 958 639 and R$209 919 404, respectively. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$778 145/death avoided and R$22 066/DALY avoided from the society perspective.

Conclusion The PCV10 universal infant immunisation programme is a cost-effective intervention (1–3 GDP per capita/DALY avoided). Owing to the uncertain burden of disease data, as well as unclear long-term vaccine effects, surveillance systems to monitor the long-term effects of this programme will be essential.

  • Cost-effectiveness
  • 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • pneumococcal infections
  • meningitis
  • pneumonia
  • bacterial disease
  • childhood infections
  • economic evaluation
  • immunisation

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  • Funding Funding for this study was provided by the Ministry of Health of Brazil and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), as a part of a project to evaluate cost-effectiveness of introducing new vaccines into the Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI). The sponsors had no role in the design, implementation, analysis, interpretation or reporting of the work.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.