Background Few studies have examined the impact of weight change in different periods of lifetime on type 2 diabetes risk, and the association of weight loss with type 2 diabetes is unclear. We prospectively investigated the association of weight change since age 20 y and that during middle-to-late adulthood with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
Methods Subjects were 52 014 men and women aged 45–75 y who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study and had no history of diabetes. ORs of self-reported physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes for weight change between age 20 y and baseline survey (mean age 50.6 y) and during 5 y between baseline and second surveys were estimated using logistic regression analysis.
Results During the 5-year period following 5-year survey, 989 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Weight gain from age 20 y was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) for a weight gain of ≥5 kg versus a stable weight were 2.61 (2.11 to 3.23) in men and 2.56 (1.95 to 3.35) in women. A weight gain of ≥5 kg over the 5-y following the baseline survey was also associated with an increased risk in women. No association with weight loss was observed for either period.
Conclusions These results suggest that long-term weight gain from early adulthood to middle-age increases risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women and that risk is further enhanced by weight gain in later life in women.
- Body weight changes
- cohort studies
- diabetes mellitus
- diabetes DI
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Funding This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Cancer Research (19shi-2) and a Health Sciences Research Grant (Comprehensive Research on Cardiovascular Diseases H19-016) from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Center of Japan.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.