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Gene–environment interaction: maternal smoking and contribution of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms to infant birth-weight reduction in a Kaunas cohort study
  1. Regina Grazuleviciene1,
  2. Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen2,
  3. Asta Danileviciute1,
  4. Ruta Nadisauskiene3,
  5. Jurate Buinauskiene3
  1. 1Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
  2. 2Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain
  3. 3Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania
  1. Correspondence to Regina Grazuleviciene, Department of Environmental Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Donelaicio St. 58, Kaunas 44248-LT, Kaunas, Lithuania; r.grazuleviciene{at}

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Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might modify the effect of smoking on pregnancy outcomes.1 2 Although separate GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions are well-studied functional variants, the synergistic effects of these two genes on the infant birth weight in smoking women is not known.


We examined the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms, and birth weight of the infant among 543 women who delivered singleton live births in a Kaunas cohort, Lithuania.3 The research protocol was approved by …

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  • Funding This work was supported in part by grant FP6-036224 from the European Commission.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Lithuanian Bioethics Committee (Protocol No 36224, 2006-07-10-32).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.