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Predictors of time spent outdoors among children: 5-year longitudinal findings
  1. V Cleland1,
  2. A Timperio1,
  3. J Salmon1,
  4. C Hume1,
  5. L A Baur2,
  6. D Crawford1
  1. 1Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney, c/- Clinical School, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Verity Cleland, Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood 3125, Australia; verity.cleland{at}


Background Given the importance of physical activity for health and age-related declines in physical activity, understanding influences on related behaviours, such as time outdoors, is crucial. This study aimed to understand individual, social and physical environmental influences on longitudinal changes in urban children's time outdoors.

Methods The time children spent outdoors in 2001, 2004 and 2006 (aged 5–6 and 10–12 years at baseline) was reported by their parents (n=421). In 2001, individual, social and physical environmental factors were self-reported by parents. Generalized estimating equations examined longitudinal relationships between baseline predictors and average change in time outdoors over 5 years.

Results Children's time outdoors significantly declined over time. “Indoor tendencies” inversely predicted time outdoors among younger and older boys, and younger girls. Social opportunities positively predicted time outdoors among younger boys, while “outdoor tendencies” positively predicted time outdoors among older boys. Parental encouragement for activity positively predicted time outdoors among younger and older girls, while lack of adult supervision for active play outdoors after school inversely predicted time outdoors among older girls and older boys.

Conclusion Individual (indoor and outdoor tendencies) and social factors (social opportunities, parental encouragement and parental supervision) predicted children's time outdoors over 5 years. Interventions targeting reduced indoor tendencies, increased outdoor play with others, and increased parental encouragement and supervision are warranted.

  • Youth
  • physical activity
  • cohort study
  • social-ecological model
  • cohort me
  • youth CG

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  • Funding The Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods study was funded by grants from the Financial Markets Foundation for Children and the National Health and Medical Research Council.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee, Department of Education and Training Victoria, and Victorian Catholic Education Office.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.