Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Socioeconomic variations in the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease: a population-based analysis
  1. Lisa M Lix1,
  2. Douglas E Hobson2,
  3. Mahmoud Azimaee3,
  4. William D Leslie4,
  5. Charles Burchill3,
  6. Shaun Hobson2
  1. 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  2. 2Movement Disorder Program, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
  3. 3Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
  4. 4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Lisa M Lix, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada; lisa.lix{at}


Background For many chronic conditions, lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher rates of disease. Previous research has not investigated whether this inverse relationship exists for Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and prevalence and incidence of PD.

Methods The study was conducted using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada. PD cases were identified from diagnoses in hospital and physician records. Area-level census data on average household income and residential postal codes in health insurance registration files were used to assign PD cases to urban and rural income quintiles. Annual adjusted prevalence and incidence estimates were calculated for fiscal years 1987/88–2006/07. Hypotheses about differences between quintiles in average estimates and average rates of change were tested using generalised linear models with generalised estimating equations.

Results The estimated prevalence of PD increased over the 20-year-period but incidence remained unchanged. In urban regions, average prevalence and incidence estimates were significantly higher for the lowest income quintile than the highest quintile. In rural regions, average prevalence estimates were significantly higher for the lowest quintile than for the highest quintile but incidence estimates were not significantly different. The annual rate of increase in the PD prevalence was significantly different for the lowest urban and rural income quintiles.

Conclusions There is a greater burden of PD in low-income areas. An understanding of socioeconomic inequalities is useful when formulating hypotheses about factors associated with disease onset and developing equity-oriented policies about access to healthcare resources.

  • Parkinson's disease
  • socioeconomic status
  • administrative data
  • longitudinal
  • health services
  • health statistics
  • longitudinal studies
  • socio-economic

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding This research was supported by funding from the National Parkinson's Foundation to the research team and a Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Award to the first author.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.