Background Data from two population-based surveys conducted in 1995 and 2005 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined to determine changes in the prevalence of obesity and macronutrient intake among women according to socio-economic level.
Methods Weight and height were measured, and food intake was based on a food-frequency questionnaire. A probabilistic sample of about 1000 women aged 35 years or older participated in each survey.
Results Prevalence of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) increased in the 10-year period (17–24%), as well as energy intake (2.408–2.912 kcal) (p<0.0001). These changes were largely dependent on education, but not on income. Over the 10-year period, there was an increase in carbohydrate intake adjusted for energy, although lipid intake decreased among those women of low education but not among the more educated women. An overall reduction in the intake of cholesterol was also observed (273 mg vs 212 mg; p<0.001).
Conclusion In line with an advertised reduction in fat intake, Brazilian women at greatest risk of obesity had a reduction in fat intake and cholesterol, and increased intake of carbohydrate. This group needs to be given a clear message regarding energy reduction in order to curb the obesity epidemic.
- fat intake
- socio-economic status
- obesity EPI
- social factors IN
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Funding This study was supported by a grant from the Brazilian Ministry of Health.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the commission on Ethics in Research of the Social Medicine Institute of the State University of Rio de Janeiro.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.