Objective: To investigate whether neighbourhood measures of geographical accessibility to outlets selling tobacco (supermarkets, convenience stores and petrol stations) are associated with individual smoking behaviour in New Zealand.
Methods: Using geographical information systems, travel times from the population-weighted centroid of each neighbourhood to the closest outlet selling tobacco were calculated for all 38 350 neighbourhoods across New Zealand. These measures were appended to the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a national survey of 12 529 adults. Two-level logistic regression models were fitted to examine the effects of neighbourhood locational access upon individual smoking behaviour after controlling for potential individual- and neighbourhood-level confounding factors, including deprivation and urban/rural status.
Results: After controlling for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic variables, individuals living in the quartiles of neighbourhoods with the best access to supermarkets (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.42) and convenience stores (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.38) had a higher odds of smoking compared with individuals in the worst access quartiles. However, the association between neighbourhood accessibility to supermarkets and convenience stores was not apparent once other neighbourhood-level variables (deprivation and rurality) were included.
Conclusions: At the national level, there is little evidence to suggest that, after adjustment for neighbourhood deprivation, better locational access to tobacco retail provision in New Zealand is associated with individual-level smoking behaviour.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Funding: None declared.
Competing interests: None declared.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.