Article Text

Download PDFPDF
High agreement on family affluence between children’s and parents’ reports: international study of 11-year-old children
  1. A Andersen1,
  2. R Krølner1,
  3. C Currie2,
  4. L Dallago3,
  5. P Due1,
  6. M Richter4,
  7. Á Örkényi5,
  8. B E Holstein1
  1. 1
    University of Copenhagen, Institute of Public Health Science, Copenhagen, Denmark
  2. 2
    University of Edinburgh, CAHRU – Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit, Edinburgh, UK
  3. 3
    University of Padova, Faculty of Psychology, Padova, Italy
  4. 4
    University of Bielefeld, School of Public Health, Bielefeld, Germany
  5. 5
    National Institute of Child Health, Department of Epidemiology, Budapest, Hungary
  1. Ms A Andersen, Institute of Public Health Science, Department of Social Medicine, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, DK-1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark; anette.andersen{at}


Objective: To examine the agreement between parents’ and children’s reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement.

Design: Cross-sectional child–parent validation study of selected items from an internationally standardised questionnaire.

Setting: Survey conducted in schools in Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Scotland.

Participants: 972 11-year-old children and their parents responded to the questionnaires.

Results: The child item response rates were high (above 93%). The per cent agreement was low for holidays spent with family (52.5%), but high for the other three items of family affluence (76.2–88.1%). The kappa coefficients were good or excellent for all items (between 0.41 and 0.74) and the gamma coefficients were strong for all items (between 0.56 and 0.96). Children from single-parent families were more likely to over-report family affluence (OR 2.67; CI 1.83 to 3.89).

Conclusions: Young adolescents’ self-reports of family affluence are fairly valid across the six countries. This finding suggests that the variables measured can be used in epidemiological studies that aim at ranking children according to socioeconomic position.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests: None.

  • Ethics approval: The participating countries have different requirements for ethical approval of school surveys. Each research team met their own national requirements. In most of the participating countries the procedures for ethical approval of school surveys are less restrictive than the procedures for getting ethical approval for randomised controlled trials of new medicines

Linked Articles

  • In this issue
    Mauricio L Barreto