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Economic recession and health inequalities in Japan: analysis with a national sample, 1986–2001
  1. N Kondo1,2,
  2. S V Subramanian1,
  3. I Kawachi1,
  4. Y Takeda3,
  5. Z Yamagata2
  1. 1
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2
    Department of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan
  3. 3
    Office for Cancer Control, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan
  1. Dr N Kondo, Landmark Center Floor 4, Room #436, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215, USA; nkondo{at}


Objective: Little is known about whether economic crises widen health inequalities. Japan experienced more than 10 years of economic recession beginning in the 1990s. The question of whether socioeconomic-based inequality in self-rated health widened after the economic crisis was examined.

Design, setting and participants: Repeated cross-sectional survey design. Two pooled datasets from 1986 and 1989 and from 1998 and 2001 were analysed separately, and temporal change was examined. The study took place in Japan among the working-age population (20–60 years old). The two surveys consisted of 168 801 and 150 016 people, respectively, with about an 80% response rate.

Results: The absolute percentages of people reporting poor health declined across all socioeconomic statuses following the crisis. However, after controlling for confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health (95% confidence intervals) among middle-class non-manual workers (clerical/sales/service workers) compared with the highest class workers (managers/administrators) was 1.02 (0.92 to 1.14) before the crisis but increased to 1.14 (1.02 to 1.29) after the crisis (p for temporal change = 0.02). The association was stronger among males. The adjusted ORs among professional workers and young female homemakers also marginally increased over time. Unemployed people were twice as likely to report poor health compared with the highest class workers throughout the period. Self-rated health of people with middle to higher incomes deteriorated in relative terms following the crisis compared with that of lower income people.

Conclusions: Self-rated health improved in absolute terms for all occupational groups even after the economic recession. However, the relative disparity increased between the top and middle occupational groups in men.

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  • Funding: NK is a recipient of the fellowship grant in Takemi Program in International Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, which was funded by the Japan Foundation for the Promotion of International Medical Research Cooperation. SVS is supported by the National Institutes of Health Career Development Award (NHLBI 1 K25 HL081275). This study was also supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan.

  • Competing interests: None.

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