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Do places affect the probability of death in Australia? A multilevel study of area-level disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and all-cause mortality, 1998–2000
  1. Gavin Turrell1,
  2. Anne Kavanagh2,
  3. Glenn Draper3,
  4. S V Subramanian4
  1. 1School of Public Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  2. 2Key Centre for Women’s Health in Society, School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
  3. 3Epidemiology Branch, Western Australia Department of Health, Perth, Australia
  4. 4Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr G Turrell
 School of Public Health, Queensland University of Technology, Victoria Park Road, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia;g.turrell{at}


Background: In Australia, studies finding an association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and mortality are often based on aggregate-ecological designs which confound area-level and individual-level sources of socioeconomic variation. Area-level socioeconomic differences in mortality therefore may be an artefact of varying population compositions and not the characteristics of areas as such.

Objective: To examine the associations between area-level disadvantage and all-cause mortality before and after adjustment for within-area variation in individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) using unlinked census and mortality-register data in a multilevel context.

Setting, participants and design: The study covers the total Australian continent for the period 1998–2000 and is based on decedents aged 25–64 years (n = 43 257). The socioeconomic characteristics of statistical local areas (SLA, n = 1317) were measured using an index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage, and individual-level SEP was measured by occupation.

Results: Living in a disadvantaged SLA was associated with higher all-cause mortality after adjustment for within-SLA variation in occupation. Death rates were highest for blue-collar workers and lowest among white-collar employees. Cross-level interactions showed no convincing evidence that SLA disadvantage modified the extent of inequality in mortality between the occupation groups.

Conclusions: Multilevel analysis can be used to examine area variation in mortality using unlinked census and mortality data, therefore making it less necessary to use aggregate-ecological designs. In Australia, area-level and individual-level socioeconomic factors make an independent contribution to the probability of premature mortality. Policies and interventions to improve population health and reduce mortality inequalities should focus on places as well as people.

  • ABS, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • ASCO, Australian Standard Classification for Occupations
  • ASGC, Australian Standard Geographical Classification
  • IRSD, index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage
  • SEP, socioeconomic position
  • SLA, statistical local area
  • SSD, statistical subdivision
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  • Funding: GT is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council/National Heart Foundation Career Development Award (CR 01B 0502) and AK is supported by a Victorian Health Promotion (VicHealth) Senior Research Fellowship. SVS is supported by a National Institutes of Health and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Career Development Award (1 K25 HL081275-01).

  • Competing interests: None.

  • Ethical approval: Institutional ethical approval was not required for this manuscript or the data on which it is based. The study comprises an analysis of publicly available data that are released in a de-identified, anonymous form.

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