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INJECTING DRUG USERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Information on injecting drug users (IDUs) in developing countries is of an unknown quality, a literature review conducted by a United Nations reference group on HIV/AIDS prevention has found. Data sources covering the period 1998–2005 were checked for estimates of the IDU populations; information was found for 105 countries with updates on 13 countries. Gathering better knowledge has important implications in terms of public health. In seven out of 10 of UNAIDS regions, the use of contaminated drugs injecting equipment is a major vector for HIV/AIDS transmission. An estimated 5–10% of all new HIV infections are as a direct result of unsafe injecting use. 10% of the HIV/AIDS cases worldwide are attributed to IDU. Steps are needed to improve the reporting and assessment of these critical data for basic assessment and surveillance. (
STAGES OF HEART FAILURE
A representative sample of adults from Porto, Portugal, was surveyed to show the susceptibility to heart failure, using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stages of heart failure. The stages range from …