Article Text

This article has a correction. Please see:

Download PDFPDF
Neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study of 2.6 million women and men in Sweden
  1. K Sundquist,
  2. M Malmström,
  3. S-E Johansson
  1. Karolinska Institutet, Family Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr K Sundquist
 Karolinska Institutet, Family Medicine Stockholm, Alfred Nobels allé 12, SE-141 83 Huddinge, Sweden;


Study objective: To examine whether neighbourhood deprivation predicts incidence rates of coronary heart disease, beyond age and individual income.

Design: Follow up study from 31 December 1995 to 31 December 1999. Women and men were analysed separately with respect to incidence rates of coronary heart disease. Multilevel logistic regression was used in the analysis with individual level characteristics (age, individual income) at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Neighbourhood deprivation was measured at small area market statistics level by the use of Care Need Index.

Setting: Sweden.

Participants: All women and men aged 40–64 in the Swedish population, in total 2.6 million people.

Main results: There was a strong relation between level of neighbourhood deprivation and incidence rates of coronary heart disease for both women and men. In the full model, which took account of individual income, the risk of developing coronary heart disease was 87% higher for women and 42% higher for men in the most deprived neighbourhoods than in the most affluent neighbourhoods. For both women and men the variance at neighbourhood level was over twice the standard error, indicating significant differences in coronary heart disease risk between neighbourhoods.

Conclusions: High levels of neighbourhood deprivation independently predict coronary heart disease for both women and men. Both individual and neighbourhood level approaches are important in health care policies.

  • neighbourhood deprivation
  • care need index
  • socioeconomic status
  • coronary heart disease
  • multilevel models
  • CNI, Care Need Index
  • CHD, coronary heart disease
  • SAMS, small area market statistics

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding: this work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 R01 HL71084–01), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (2001–2373), the Swedish Research Council (K2001-27X-11651-06C), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and the Stockholm County Council.

  • Conflicts of interest: none declared.

Linked Articles