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In the past millennium, infectious diseases, from the plagues in the 14th century to HIV in the 20th century, were spread by international travellers by land, sea, and air. Because of infectious epidemics, global infectious disease surveillance is now in place; outbreaks of infectious diseases in one country are quickly notified to other countries. By comparison, chronic diseases, not being infectious, do not require the same immediate alert and control mechanisms. Global chronic disease surveillance therefore ranks lower in the …