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Neighbourhood level and individual level SES effects on child problem behaviour: a multilevel analysis
  1. A C Kalffa,
  2. M Kroesb,
  3. J S H Vlesb,
  4. J G M Hendriksenc,
  5. F J M Ferond,
  6. J Steyaerta,
  7. T M C B van Zebene,
  8. J Jollesa,
  9. J van Osf
  1. aDepartment of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, the Netherlands, bDepartment of Neurology, Academic Hospital of Maastricht, the Netherlands , c Child Revalidation Centre Franciscusoord, Valkenburg, the Netherlands, d Youth Health Care of the Municipal Health Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands, e Paediatric Department, Academic Hospital of Maastricht, the Netherlands, f Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, the Netherlands and Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom
  1. Professor van Os, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Section Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Maastricht University, European Graduate School of Neuroscience, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands (j.vanos{at}


OBJECTIVE This study examined whether neighbourhood level socioeconomic variables have an independent effect on reported child behaviour problems over and above the effect of individual level measures of socioeconomic status.

DESIGN AND SETTING Multilevel analysis of cross sectional survey data relating individual level child behavioural problems and parental measures of socioeconomic status with neighbourhood level measures of socioeconomic deprivation in the city of Maastricht, the Netherlands.

PARTICIPANTS Children born in the years 1990–1991 attending the second grade of normal kindergarten schools in the city of Maastricht, the Netherlands. Out of 1417 eligible 5–7 year olds, the parents of 734 children (51.8%) agreed to participate.

MAIN RESULTS Child behaviour problems were more frequent in families of low parental occupation and education (F=14.51, df 3, 721, p<0.001; F=12.20, df 3, 721, p<0.001, respectively) and in families living in deprived neighbourhoods (F=13.26, df 2, 722, p<0.001). Multilevel random effects regression analysis showed that the effect of neighbourhood level deprivation remained after adjustment for individual level socioeconomic status (B over three levels of deprivation: 1.36; 95%CI=0.28, 2.45).

CONCLUSIONS Living in a more deprived neighbourhood is associated with higher levels of child problem behaviour, irrespective of individual level socioeconomic status. The additional effect of the neighbourhood may be attributable to contextual variables such as the level of social cohesion among residents.

  • neighbourhood deprivation
  • behaviour problems
  • multilevel regression analysis

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  • Funding: this study was financially supported by the Profilerings Fund of the Academic Hospital of Maastricht, the Netherlands, the Dutch Prevention Fund, and the Faculty of Medicine of Maasricht University, the Netherlands.

  • Conflicts of interest: none.