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Musculoskeletal pain and smoking in Norway.
  1. S Brage,
  2. T Bjerkedal
  1. Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between musculoskeletal pain and smoking. DESIGN: Cross sectional, national interview survey. SETTING: All individuals in a representative sample of households in Norway in 1985. SUBJECTS: A total of 6681 persons aged 16 to 66 years old. people in institutions were not included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Gender specific and age specific prevalence rates for pain in the cervical region/upper limbs, back, and lower limbs. RESULTS: Current smoking was independently associated with musculoskeletal pain (odds ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.45, 1.97) after adjustment for gender, age, comorbidity, mental distress, lifestyle factors, and occupation related factors. The association was of similar strength regarding cervical/upper limb pain (OR 1.87; CI 1.56, 2.25) and back pain (OR 1.84; CI 1.50, 2.25) but weaker in respect of lower limb pain (OR 1.37; CI 1.10, 1.71). Musculoskeletal pain was often present in more than one site. CONCLUSION: Smoking was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain after adjustment for other relevant factors.

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