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Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men.
  1. J M Carstensen,
  2. G Pershagen,
  3. G Eklund
  1. Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


    In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer of the oral cavity and larynx, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, lung, and bladder as well as due to bronchitis and emphysema, ischaemic heart disease, aortic aneurysm, and peptic ulcer. Pipe smokers showed similar risk levels to cigarette smokers. There was a close to linear increase in lung cancer risk in relation to the amount of tobacco smoked for cigarette, pipe, and cigar smokers, respectively. An increasing risk of ischaemic heart disease with amount smoked was seen among both cigarette and pipe smokers. A similar fraction of inhalers in Swedish cigarette and pipe smokers may explain the similarity in risks.

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